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Solitons are waves that propagate with little energy loss and keep their shape, even after colliding with other waves. The phenomenon was first observed in water, but solitons in the form of light pulses are being employed in fiber-optic transmission systems to enhance distance and performance. The soliton serves as the method for encoding digital signals onto the cable. Soliton-based equipment emits a short pulse of laser light that propagates through fiber-optic cable with no chromatic dispersion.

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